Educational psychology - teaching practice

Guto Maia *

“May my words be fair to the just, resist the hypocrisy of hypocrites, be fun for children, reliable for adults and sober for the wise.

But, cordial to anyone, especially. I am a teacher".“May my words be fair to the just, resist the hypocrisy of hypocrites, be fun for children, reliable for adults and sober for the wise. But, cordial to anyone, especially. I am a teacher".
09/10/20 - Good evening everyone! (Leia em português)

Answering the questions proposed by prof. Jessica, I would like to present some considerations from reading the texts of the AVA Uni9 platform, associated with personal convictions based on the experience of teaching practice in adapted teaching. I hope to contribute to the forum's discussions by proposing a reflection on the future of education, where most of the concepts will be reformulated and built for the new decade that begins with so many uncertainties.

We are at the ground zero of a new era, where due to a worldwide health upheaval, the questions have become more numerous than the answers, reversing the trend until then, where Google gave us thousands of convincing answers to any question.

Things have been reversed and we will have to reinvent ourselves as individuals and as a society, starting in 2021.

a) Contribution of Psychology to Education

The main contribution of Psychology to education is the rigorous mapping of the mental functions that govern the individual's cognitive, intellectual, social, emotional and affective behavior, in the different stages of growth and of his adult life in relation to learning.

This mapping becomes an important tool as an aid to the educator to outline teaching strategies appropriate to the socio-cultural circumstances of his students, taking into account the ideological line of the entity to which he is subordinate, respecting his own skills, with positive results for all.

This is the most visible practical aspect of the contribution of psychology: collaborating in the efficiency of didactic choices in the classroom directed to each age group.

In a broader field, Psychology through the various theoretical currents of its thinkers, supports the teacher in his personal and professional expectations, in face of the pressure of an activity where progress and didactic objectives are not always achieved.

Psychology becomes even more fundamental in instrumentalizing the teaching teacher adapted for people with learning difficulties. He will live with the frustration of the low performance of students. This generates anxiety and questions about the teacher's own competences. In this sense, the psychological strengthening of the educator will be fundamental so that he does not give up.

In addition, psychology can be applied at all times in all relationships between the individual and learning.

Above all, it helps us to live with differences.

In the history of Psychology, in addition to the theorists of the school universe, several trends were important in the diversification of approaches that the teacher can use as references. Especially, educators linked to adapted teaching of people with learning disorders.

This specialization will be increasingly necessary in the formal education of people with disabilities, vulnerable and elderly people, who will increasingly participate in the various levels of academic life.

b) Some basic features of these theories

Psychoanalysis: Developed and created by Freud, this theory seeks to describe the causes of mental disorders, human development, personality and motivations;

Jung's Analytical Psychology or Jungian Analysis: In this regard, Jung disagrees with some of Freud's theories. Here, the main object of study is dreams and the therapist seeks to keep the conversation going around the problems that led him there.

Behaviorism or Behavioral Analytical: As the name says, whoever uses this line will work directly on people's behavior.

Humanism: This aspect is based on acceptance, on the concept that we can only change when we assume to ourselves that there is a problem that needs to be addressed. A phrase by humanist Carl Rogers defines this method well: "The curious paradox is that when I accept myself as I am, then I change".

Body Psychotherapy or Reich: For him, just sitting and talking about his problems did not seem to be the best solution to solve them. Therefore, disagreeing with some scholars, he started body psychotherapy.

Cognitive-Behavioral or CBT: Those who work with this approach will focus on changing dysfunctional thoughts, that is, those that make us “lose faith” in ourselves, like the typical “I will never be able to do this” or “ I don't do anything right ”.

Gestalt-therapy: This approach emerged between the 50s and 60s. His theory came with a more integrated view, focusing on mind and body as a unit, without a split. He has a holistic view of man and the world, where one affects the other. He believes that feeling, thinking and acting need to be in tune and be respected for health.

Source: https://blog.unis.edu.br/saiba-tudo-sobre-as-principal-abordagens-da-psicologia Access on 05/09/2020
c) Additional considerations

Some aspects where the knowledge of Psychology presents itself as a fundamental support for teachers of adapted teaching:

Constitute a regulating valve for themselves and students, in the control of emotional pressure in the face of frustration due to the poor absorption of content by students;
Lower expectations about students, parents, employing institutions and the education system as a whole with regard to inclusive education in Brazil;
Technology, uses and customs. Be aware that students may have greater knowledge than imagined, thanks to access to technology. It is no use fighting with technology, but rather, making it your greatest ally. This requires a deep and continuous study;
Help to never put yourself in the condition of "master of knowledge", holder of the monopoly of content. This model of an authoritarian and arrogant teacher was in the past;
Realize that each new class (every day) is a blank page, and advances will not always be cumulative or progressive, with countless setbacks on several occasions;
Set yourself as an example for students. This is the price of someone who proposes to train new citizens: it is important to have an exemplary public life;
Anticipate students' expectations, knowing the main patterns of student profiles;
There are countless other situations in which Psychology will help the teacher to have good results, especially in the preservation of his own emotional health.

d) Conclusion

For the teacher, Psychology and Education are inseparable in the teaching-learning process.

Conviction about the attribution of educating:

“May my words be fair to the just, resist the hypocrisy of hypocrites, be fun for children, reliable for adults and sober for the wise.

But, cordial to anyone, especially. I am a teacher".

d) About methods

We can consider that the need creates the method that perpetuates it, if it does not allow constant reviews and adaptations to new needs.

The method is always conservative and comes from the need to organize the transmission of knowledge, to advance the theories that supply the immediate needs of each era.

When the need is met or more important new needs arise, the method has to be revised.

This is what is happening in the world and, particularly, in Brazil, given the need to search for new paths for Education.

As we have been lacking for a long time in reliable directions in Education, it is important to revisit all the educational theories available in History, reevaluating them and trying to readjust them in the search for new directions in the face of the challenges of the next decade.

e) About Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky

Vygotsky considered social relations as the greatest influences for the development of the individual's education, unlike Piaget, who believed in psychogenetic factors.

The Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP), Vygotsky's thesis, shows the conviction in the interference of the social environment on the child during the learning process, as defining the learning capacity.

The role of the educator in this process is that of a mediator, always attentive to the individual potential of each student to obtain the greatest possible use of skills. Interactionism requires an active, participatory leadership role that is sensitive to the limits of each learner's abilities.

Vygotsky directed his studies towards the creation of a culture of intellectual development based on the influence of the collective on the individual, creating the pedagogical current of thought called socioconstructivism or sociointeractionism.

The strength of the Vygotskian theories resonates today, making this Belarusian psychologist who died more than 70 years ago (1896-1934), still have his work in the process of discovery and debate in the world and in Brazil.

The updating of its concepts can make a great contribution to the reconstruction of Education that we will go through in the next decade.

São Paulo, 09/11/2020
*Guto Maia - José Augusto Maia Baptista
RA 25100232 - Social Sciences Degree
Vergueiro EAD Campus Vergueiro


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